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Porzana carolina

Length: 8 - 10 inches Wingspan: 14 inches Seasonality: Summer
ID Keys: Chunky body, short yellow bill, black face and throat, dark brown back.

Sora - Porzana carolinaAs is the case with most of the Rails, Sora are often quite difficult to observe due to their preference for thick marshy vegetation.  They are one of the most common of Rails.  Unlike the long-billed Rails, their short bill prevents them from probing mudflats for small animals.  Instead, they feed heavily on seeds, other vegetative matter, and insects.

Habitat: During the breeding season, Sora can be found in a wide variety of freshwater marshy habitats, including wetlands, river and pond edges, and damp meadows.  They will inhabit saltwater marshes as well during the winter.

Diet: Feeds heavily on vegetative material, especially seeds and wild rice.  Also feeds on aquatic insects, snails, small crustaceans, and spiders. 

Behavior: Walks slowly through wetland vegetation, plucking food items from the surface of the water, from vegetation, or from the ground.  Will also occasionally probe in soft mud with its bill for food items.

Nesting: June through August

Song: A long descending whinny that's slower at the end.

Migration: Summers throughout much of Canada and the northern two-thirds of the United States.  Winters along U.S. coastlines, in the far southern portions of the U.S., and points south.

Interactive eBird map: Click here to access an interactive eBird map of Sora sightings

Similar Species: Virginia Rail, Yellow Rail

Conservation Status: Generally widespread, but local declines have been noted due to loss of freshwater marshes.  However, overall populations are strong and may be increasing overall. The IUCN considers the Sora to be a species of "least concern".

Further Information: 1) USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter, Sora

2) WhatBird - Sora

3) Audubon Guide - Sora

Photo Information: April 26th, 2007 - Lake County, South Dakota - Terry L. Sohl

Additional Photos: Click on the image chips or text links below for additional, higher-resolution Sora photos.


Click on the map below for a higher-resolution view
Range Map - Sora
South Dakota Status: Common summer breeding resident in suitable habitat throughout the state.

Additional Sora Photos
Click for a higher-resolution version of these photos
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